Evaluating “Useful to Evaluate” Critical Reasoning Questions – Part II

Quarter Wit, Quarter WisdomLast week we looked at how to handle “useful to evaluate” questions in the Verbal section, and we left you with a tricky “useful to evaluate except” question. Let’s take a look at that problem today. “Except” questions are usually more difficult to deal with since we need to find four “correct” options (which we are not as used to). So, let’s take a look at this question:

Following several years of declining advertising sales, the Greenville Times reorganized its advertising sales force two years ago. Before the reorganization, the sales force was organised geographically, with some sales representatives concentrating on city center businesses and others concentrating on different outlying regions. The reorganization attempted to increase the sales representatives’ knowledge of clients’ businesses by having each sales representative deal with only one type of industry or of retailing. After the reorganization, advertising sales increased. 

In assessing whether the improvement in advertising sales can properly be attributed to the reorganization, it would be helpful to find out each of the following EXCEPT:

(A) Two years ago, what proportion of the Greenville Times’ total revenue was generated by advertising sales?
(B) Has the circulation of the Greenville Times increased substantially in the last two years?
(C) Has there been a substantial turnover in personnel in the advertising sales force over the last two years?
(D) Before the reorganization, had sales representatives found it difficult to keep up with relevant developments in all types of businesses to which they are assigned?
(E) Has the economy in Greenville and the surrounding regions been growing rapidly over the last two years?

Let’s first break down what the argument says:

  • Advertising sales were declining.
  • The paper reorganized the advertising sales team two years back.
  • Advertising sales increased after reorganisation.

Now, we want to figure out whether the increase actually happened due to the reorganization; in other words, we need to evaluate what else could have caused the increase in sales, if not the reorganization. Say the lead of the sales team changed two years back – it is possible that he is responsible for the increase in revenue. Four of the five answer choices will raise similar questions, while the leftover option (which will be our answer) will not. Let’s take a look at each of the answer choices:

(A) Two years ago, what proportion of the Greenville Times’ total revenue was generated by the advertising sales?

The proportion of advertising sales as a part of the total revenue is immaterial to us – we only need to evaluate why the advertising sales have increased. It is possible that the revenue from other sources has increased much more than the revenue from advertising sales, and hence, advertising sales could be a smaller proportion of the overall revenue now, however this doesn’t matter at all. This option has nothing to do with the increase in advertising sales, and hence, is the correct answer.

Let’s take a look at all the other options too, just to be safe:

(B) Has the circulation of the Greenville Times increased substantially in the last two years?

This answer choice can be evaluated in two ways:

  1. Yes, it has increased – If the circulation increased substantially in the last two years, that could have led to the increase in advertising sales.
  2. No, it has not increased – If the circulation hasn’t increased substantially, then there must be another reason for the increase in advertising sales. In that case, the reorganization could be the reason.

These two answers affect the argument differently, and hence, this option will be useful in evaluating the argument.

(C) Has there been a substantial turnover in personnel in the advertising sales force over the last two years?

Again, the answer choice can be evaluated in two ways:

  1. Yes, there has – If there has been a substantial turnover in personnel, it is possible that more capable people have been hired, which could have led to higher advertising sales.
  2. No, there hasn’t – If there hasn’t been a substantial turnover in personnel, then there would need to be another reason for the increased advertising sales. In that case, the reorganization could be the reason.

The two answers affect the argument differently, so this option will also be useful in evaluating the argument.

(D) Before the reorganization, had sales representatives found it difficult to keep up with relevant developments in all types of businesses to which they are assigned?

This option can also be evaluated in two ways:

  1. Yes, they did find it difficult – Did reorganization make it easier to keep track of relevant developments? If yes, then the reorganization could be responsible for the increase in sales.
  2. No, they did not find it difficult – If they did not find it difficult to keep up with relevant developments, then we cannot say whether the reorganization was responsible for the increase in sales or not.

These two responses affect the argument differently. Hence, this option will be useful in evaluating the argument.

(E) Has the economy in Greenville and the surrounding regions been growing rapidly over the last two years?

Answer choice E can also be evaluated in two ways:

  1. Yes, it has – If the economy has been growing rapidly over the past two years, it could be the reason for higher advertising sales. Then we may not be able to attribute the improvement in advertising sales to the reorganization.
  2. No it has not – If there has been no such growth in the economy, then reorganization could be the reason for higher advertising sales.

Again, the two responses affect the argument differently, so this option will also be useful in evaluating the argument.

We see that B, C, D and E are all useful in evaluating the argument. Therefore, our answer is A. We hope you will find it easier to handle such questions in the future!

Getting ready to take the GMAT? We have free online GMAT seminars running all the time. And, be sure to follow us on FacebookYouTubeGoogle+, and Twitter!

Karishma, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the GMAT for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as this blog!

Evaluating “Useful to Evaluate” Critical Reasoning Questions on the GMAT

Quarter Wit, Quarter WisdomIn today’s post, we will look at how to answer “useful to evaluate” Critical Reasoning questions in the Verbal section of the GMAT. Arguably, this is one of the toughest question types for test-takers to tackle (perhaps right after boldfaced questions).

To answer this type of question, all you will need to do is follow these six simple steps:

1) Identify the conclusion.
2) Ask yourself the question raised by answer choice A.
3) Answer it with a “yes” and figure out whether it affects the conclusion.
4) Answer it with a “no” and figure out whether it affects the conclusion.
5) Repeat this for all other answer choices.
6) Only one option will affect the conclusion differently in the two cases – that is your answer.

Let’s illustrate this concept with a problem:

In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movements of many rhinoceroses because those animals wear radio collars. When, as often happens, a collar slips off, it is put back on. Putting a collar on a rhinoceros involves immobilizing the animal by shooting it with a tranquilizer dart. Female rhinoceroses that have been frequently re-collared have significantly lower fertility rates than uncollared females. Probably, therefore, some substance in the tranquilizer inhibits fertility. 

In evaluating the argument, it would be most useful to determine which of the following? 

(A) Whether there are more collared female rhinoceroses than uncollared female rhinoceroses in the park. 
(B) How the tranquilizer that is used for immobilizing rhinoceroses differs, if at all, from tranquilizers used in working with other large mammals 
(C) How often park rangers need to use tranquilizer darts to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars 
(D) Whether male rhinoceroses in the wildlife park lose their collars any more often than the park’s female rhinoceroses do 
(E) Whether radio collars are the only practical means that park rangers have for tracking the movements of rhinoceroses in the park

First, we need to break down the argument to find the premises and the conclusion:

  • Many rhinoceroses wear radio collars.
  • Often, collars slip.
  • When a collar slips, the animal is shot with a tranquilizer to re-collar.
  • The fertility of frequently re-collared females is less than the fertility of uncollared females.
  • Conclusion: Some substance in the tranquilizer inhibits fertility.

Let’s take a look at each answer choice:

(A) Whether there are more collared female rhinoceroses than uncollared female rhinoceroses in the park.

Even if there are more collared female rhinoceroses than uncollared females, this does not affect the argument’s conclusion. This answer choice talks about collared females vs. uncollared females; we are comparing the fertility of re-collared females with that of uncollared females. Anyway, how many of either type there are doesn’t matter. So, whether you answer “yes” or “no” to this question, it is immaterial.

(B) How the tranquilizer that is used for immobilizing rhinoceroses differs, if at all, from tranquilizers used in working with other large mammals.

This option is comparing the tranquilizers used for rhinoceroses with the tranquilizers used for other large mammals. What the conclusion does, however, is compare collared female rhinoceroses with uncollared female rhinoceroses. Hence, whether you answer “very different” or “not different at all” to this question, in the end, it doesn’t matter.

(C) How often park rangers need to use tranquilizer darts to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars.

This answer choice can be evaluated in two ways:

  • Very Often – Tranquilizers are used very often for uncollared females, too. In this case, can we still say that “tranquilizers inhibit fertility”? No! If they did, fertility in uncollared females would have been low, too.
  • Rarely – This would strengthen our conclusion. If tranquilizers are not used on uncollared females, it is possible that something in these tranquilizers inhibits fertility.

(D) Whether male rhinoceroses in the wildlife park lose their collars any more often than the park’s female rhinoceroses do.

This answer choice is comparing the frequency of tranquilizers used on male rhinoceroses with the frequency of tranquilizers used on female rhinoceroses. What the conclusion actually does is compare collared female rhinoceroses with uncollared female rhinoceroses. Hence, whether you answer this question with “more frequently” or “not more frequently,” it doesn’t matter.

(E) Whether radio collars are the only practical means that park rangers have for tracking the movements of rhinoceroses in the park.

This option is comparing radio collars with other means of tracking. What the conclusion does is compare collared female rhinoceroses with uncollared female rhinoceroses. Hence, whether you answer this question with “there are other means” or “there are no other means,” again, it does not matter.

Note that only answer choice C affects the conclusion – if you answer the question it raises differently, it affects the conclusion differently. Option C would be good to know to evaluate the conclusion of the argument, therefore, the answer must be C.

Now try this question on your own:

Following several years of declining advertising sales, the Greenville Times reorganized its advertising sales force two years ago. Before the reorganization, the sales force was organized geographically, with some sales representatives concentrating on city-center businesses and others concentrating on different outlying regions. The reorganization attempted to increase the sales representatives’ knowledge of clients’ businesses by having each sales representative deal with only one type of industry or of retailing. After the reorganization, advertising sales increased. 

In assessing whether the improvement in advertising sales can properly be attributed to the reorganization, it would be helpful to find out each of the following EXCEPT:

(A) Two years ago, what proportion of the Greenville Times’ total revenue was generated by advertising sales?
(B) Has the circulation of the Greenville Times increased substantially in the last two years?
(C) Has there been a substantial turnover in personnel in the advertising sales force over the last two years?
(D) Before the reorganization, had sales representatives found it difficult to keep up with relevant developments in all types of businesses to which they are assigned?
(E) Has the economy in Greenville and the surrounding regions been growing rapidly over the last two years?

We hope you will find this post useful to evaluate the “useful to evaluate” questions!

Getting ready to take the GMAT? We have free online GMAT seminars running all the time. And, be sure to follow us on FacebookYouTubeGoogle+, and Twitter!

Karishma, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the GMAT for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as this blog!