The Biggest Mistakes You Can Make in the GRE Verbal Section: Sentence Equivalence Questions

08fba0fLet’s talk some GRE Verbal. Now, if you’re studying for the GRE Verbal section, you’re thinking about Text Completion and Sentence Equivalence as two major question types that you need to be ready for. And as you’ll see, you can talk about them in terms of the word “vocabulary,” because the right answers tend to be an individual word or a short phrase that is some kind of “vocabulary” –  a word you need to know the meaning of and fit into the meaning of the sentence.

Here’s where students tend to study wrong, ineffectively, and inefficiently: they over-study their 500-word flash card decks (the most ridiculous and obscure words they can find). Yes, you do need to have a decent vocabulary to do well on these questions, but what these students don’t study enough as they’re chasing really strange words over and over again – which they may only see three or four of on test day – is knowing that, very often, these questions require you to work.

Continue reading or check out our video explanation of this concept below:

It’s not about knowing some memorized definition of a weird word – often, the test will use words you know, but you will need to work a little bit to figure out exactly what type of meaning you need in that sentence, and whether that word you’re looking at (a word you probably use in sentences every day, week, month, etc.) has the precise meaning you need in that particular space.

Now let’s take a look at this Sentence Equivalence example that will shed some light on what we’re talking about:

While the cost of migrating to more automated piloting and air traffic control systems is substantial, the eventual cost savings are large enough that the up-front expenditures are not as ______ as opponents claim.

Select the two choices that fit the meaning of the sentence and give the sentence the same meaning.

(A) fiscal
(B) imprudent
(C) reasonable
(D) excessive
(E) massive
(F) paltry

Now, if you look at what’s going on in this sentence, we have a contrast (and the word “while” sets this up). The sentence is saying that even though the cost is substantial – we’re agreeing this will cost a lot of money – what you’re going to save in the long run means that it’s not as *blank* (as big of a deal) as opponents claim.

What tends to happen with this problem is people look for synonyms. They say, “We think the cost is big, but maybe not as big as we once thought,” so they’ll look and see “excessive” and “massive” –two words that in some way mean “big”. Then they’ll pick those answer choices and get this question wrong. Why are these choices wrong? It’s about a little, subtle difference in meaning, and the Testmaker wants to reward those who pick up on it.

The word “massive” means “big,” while the word “excessive” means “too big.” If you look at what’s going on in the sentence, anytime there’s a comma (or two sentences in one prompt), the part that is not near the blank space really does matter. This is a classic “Think Like the Testmaker” moment – you should be thinking, “Why did they put that part there? To reward those who are thinking of the meaning of the whole sentence.”

Nobody is arguing that changing to automated piloting is not a big cost. Nobody is saying, “Hey, while it’s big, actually it’s not big.” What they really want to say is, “Hey, this is going to cost you a lot of money – it’s a big expenditure up front – but in the end, you’re going to save enough money that it’s not too big of an investment or an unwise decision.” So what you really want here is “too big”. We’re not debating whether the expense is big or not; we’re only debating whether it’s a wise investment, or too much to spend up front.

With this in mind, answer choice E, “massive” or “big,” is wrong, even though it’s really tempting. “Imprudent,” on the other hand, means “impractical” or “too big,” which is what we’re looking for. So the answers are B and D. Again, what this question really comes down to is that tiny, subtle difference between the meanings of words that you know. In this case, we want “too big,” so the test tries to hit you with a word that means “big.” That’s what we mean when we say you need to prepare to work on these questions. It’s about understanding the meaning of the sentence as a whole, finding those subtle differences, and holding up the words you’re putting in the blank and saying, “Is that really the exact word I need, or are they just overall related?”

As you study for the GRE Verbal section, you do want to have a good vocabulary, but don’t let that come at the expense of your willingness to really go to work on subtle differences in meaning with words that you know.

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By Brian Galvin.

Tips for Mastering the GRE’s Sentence Equivalence and Text Completion Sections

EssayThe Verbal Reasoning section is just one of three parts on the Graduate Record Examination, also known as the GRE. In this section, students must answer both sentence equivalence and text completion questions.

Take a closer look at what these types of questions entail, and learn some strategies for arriving at the correct answers:

What Are Sentence Equivalence Questions?
For each sentence equivalence question, a student is given a sentence with a blank space. Instead of choosing just one answer option to put into the blank space, a student must choose two – when put into the blank space, each answer option should create a logical sentence. Furthermore, both complete sentences should have the same meaning. There are a total of six answer options for each sentence equivalence question.

Strategies for Mastering Sentence Equivalence Questions
There are many things students can do to improve their performance on this part of the GRE. Sentence equivalence practice should start with reading the entire sentence and scanning all of the answer choice options. One of the most effective GRE sentence completion tips for students to keep in mind is to look for words and phrases that reveal the meaning or tone of a sentence. It’s easier for a student to choose the most appropriate answer options when they grasp the overall meaning of a sentence.

For example, the words “however” and “although” can be clues that the second part of a sentence conflicts with the first part. Take a look at this sentence: “The trial attorney was known for his grandiloquent speeches in the courtroom; however, his demeanor was ____ while spending time at home with his family.” The word “however” in the sentence should signal a student to look for an answer option that means the opposite of “grandiloquent.” Alternatively, a student who sees the words “moreover” or “similarly” in a sentence should bear in mind that these words indicate agreement.

Students looking for other useful GRE sentence completion tips may want to try coming up with a few words that would fit logically into a sentence. After thinking of a short list of words, students can peruse the answer options to find two words that are similar in meaning. Another technique to try as a student participates in GRE sentence equivalence practice is to cross out answer options that would definitely not fit in the sentence.

What Are Text Completion Questions?
GRE text completion questions measure how well students evaluate and interpret reading material. Each GRE text completion question features a short passage. There are one to three blank spaces within the passage, requiring a student to choose the best answer option for each one.

For instance, if there are three blanks in a passage, then a student will have three answer options per blank. Alternatively, if the passage consists of just a single sentence with one blank space, then the student will receive five answer options to choose from. In the end, a student should end up with a passage made up of logical sentences.

How to Master Text Completion Questions
The first step in a student’s approach to a text completion question should be to read the entire passage. This gives a student an idea of the tone and structure of the passage. The next step is to look for words in the passage that can help a student select the answer option that leads to logical sentence completion. GRE questions in this section challenge a student’s ability to consistently create coherent sentences. Some words to look for include “moreover,” “although,” and “however.”

When working on a text completion question, it’s not necessary for students to start with the first blank and finish by finding an answer option that fits the third blank. Sometimes, filling in the blanks out of order can simplify the process of determining the correct answers for each one.

Our staff at Veritas Prep stands ready to help students who want to put forth their best performance on the GRE. At Veritas Prep, we teach our students practical strategies that prepare them for the GRE. Furthermore, students who take advantage of our prep courses learn from instructors who’ve mastered the exam.

We provide expert guidance on all of the questions on this challenging test, including the ones that involve text and sentence completion. GRE courses are available to suit the busy schedules of our students. We give our students the tools they need to excel – contact Veritas Prep today and let us help you master the GRE!

Want to jump-start your GRE preparation? Register to attend one of our upcoming free online GRE Strategy Sessions or check out our variety of GRE Course and Private Tutoring options. And as always, be sure to follow us on Facebook, YouTube, Google+ and Twitter!