Quarter Wit, Quarter Wisdom: Linear Relations in GMAT Questions

Quarter Wit, Quarter WisdomWe have covered the concepts of direct, inverse and joint variation in previous posts. Today, we will discuss what we mean by “linearly related”. A linear relation is one which, when plotted on a graph, is a straight line. In linear relationships, any given change in an independent variable will produce a corresponding change in the dependent variable, just like a change in the x-coordinate produces a corresponding change in the y-coordinate on a line.

We know the equation of a line: it is y = mx + c, where m is the slope and c is a constant.

Let’s illustrate this concept with a GMAT question. This question may not seem like a geometry question, but using the concept of linear relations can make it easy to find the answer:

A certain quantity is measured on two different scales, the R-scale and the S-scale, that are related linearly. Measurements on the R-scale of 6 and 24 correspond to measurements on the S-scale of 30 and 60, respectively. What measurement on the R-scale corresponds to a measurement of 100 on the S-scale?

(A) 20
(B) 36
(C) 48
(D) 60
(E) 84

Let’s think of the two scales R and S as x- and y-coordinates. We can get two equations for the line that depicts their relationship:

30 = 6m + c ……. (I)
60 = 24m + c ……(II)

(II) – (I)
30 = 18m
m = 30/18 = 5/3

Plugging m = 5/3 in (I), we get:

30 = 6*(5/3) + c
c = 20

Therefore, the equation is S = (5/3)R + 20. Let’s plug in S = 100 to get the value of R:

100 = (5/3)R + 20
R = 48

48 (answer choice C) is our answer.

Alternatively, we have discussed the concept of slope and how to deal with it without any equations in this post. Think of each corresponding pair of R and S as points lying on a line – (6, 30) and (24, 60) are points on a line, so what will (r, 100) be on the same line?

We see that an increase of 18 in the x-coordinate (from 6 to 24) causes an increase of 30 in the y-coordinate (from 30 to 60).

So, the y-coordinate increases by 30/18 = 5/3 for every 1 point increase in the x-coordinate (this is the concept of slope).

From 60 to 100, the increase in the y-coordinate is 40, so the x-coordinate will also increase from 24 to 24 + 40*(3/5) = 48. Again, C is our answer.

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Karishma, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the GMAT for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as this blog!