While summer hasn’t officially started with the solstice coming in a few weeks, this post-Memorial-Day short week and a final farewell to winter weather has started the summer season in earnest for most Northern Hemispherians. And thus beginneth the season of sentences like:
It’s not only the heat but also the humidity.
Both the heat and the humidity have been awful this summer.
And while you lament the oppressive heat waves with such sentences this summer, you can not only wish you had air conditioning but also prepare for the GMAT. “Not only…but also;” “Both _____ and ______;” “Just as X, so Y;” and other similar phrases should be free points for you on the GMAT if you heed this advice (which is not only valid GMAT advice but also terrific summertime skin care advice):
As an example, consider this partial sentence correction question:
This weekend, Anna will either go surfing at Paradise Cove or sailing at Montego Marina.
(A) go surfing at Paradise Cove or sailing
(B) surf at Paradise Cove or she will sail
(C) go surfing at Paradise Cove or go sailing
The technique? Cover up everything from “either” through “or” (or from “not only” through “but also” or from “both” through “and” when you see those structures) and if the sentence doesn’t still make sense, it’s wrong. Try it:
(A) This weekend, Anna will…sailing at Montego Marina.
(B) This weekend, Anna will…she will sail at Montego Marina
(C) This weekend, Anna will…go sailing at Montego Marina
As you should see, C is the only one that makes sense, so it has to be right. The reason? These “structures that split in two” require parallel construction – if there’s a verb right after “either” there has to be a verb right after “or.” But if the subject comes right after “either,” there has to be a subject (like she) right after “or.” And the byproduct of that is that if that parallel structure is broken, the second half of the sentence won’t make sense – it will either be missing an important word or
it will include a redundant word or phrase (like “it will”).
So when you see any of these constructions:
Both X and Y
Either X or Y
Neither X nor Y
Just as X, so Y
Not only X, but also Y
Seize the opportunity and cover up everything between (and including) those structural phrases. If the resulting sentence doesn’t make sense, that answer is wrong. And since people often struggle mightily with parallel structures, the “Cover Up” strategy should give you free points on that question. So while you may not be a fan of either the heat or the humidity this summer, paying attention to parallel structure when you issue those complaints can help you get into both Harvard and
into Stanford in the fall.
By Brian Galvin