The post Kickstart Your GMAT Prep: How to Start Preparing for the GMAT appeared first on Veritas Prep Blog.

]]>**Increase the Amount of Reading You Do**

You may wonder how to start preparation for GMAT questions in the Verbal section. As someone who wants to pursue an MBA, you probably read finance-related materials such as newspapers and magazines – you may even be part of an online organization that gives you the latest financial news. Increasing the amount of reading you do can help you prep for Reading Comprehension questions on the exam.

By reading a variety of finance-related materials, you expose yourself to vocabulary words that may appear on the test. Also, reading financial articles and books can get you thinking like a business executive, which is the mindset you should have as you sit down to take the exam. Absorbing the information contained in finance-related materials can contribute to your performance on the GMAT, as well as serve you in your future career.

**Complete Practice Questions for the GMAT**

When thinking about how to start preparing for GMAT questions, you should certainly put a practice test on your to-do list. A practice GMAT serves you in several ways – for one, you’ll become familiar with the types of questions you’ll encounter on test day. Secondly, you’ll get an idea of how quickly you have to work in order to finish each section of the test before your time is up. In addition, you can use the results of your practice test to create a study schedule that allows you to dedicate the largest amount of time to your weakest subjects.

A free GMAT practice exam is available to you from Veritas Prep. We provide you with a performance analysis as well as a score report so you know what you have mastered and what needs a little work. Once you dive into your studies, it’s a good idea to take follow-up practice tests to gauge your progress.

**Create and Follow a Study Schedule**

Anyone who is wondering how to start their GMAT preparation must recognize the importance of a study schedule. As with most other exams, gradual study is the best path to success on the GMAT. You may want to study for two or three hours, five or even seven days per week.

The appearance of your study schedule is going to reflect the results of your practice tests. For example, say you need to sharpen your geometry and algebra skills. You may create a schedule that dedicates an hour to geometry on Tuesdays and Thursdays and an hour to algebra on Mondays and Wednesdays. If you find that you need to improve your Reading Comprehension skills, then you may carve out time on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays to work on that. Creating a varied study schedule is an effective way to stay organized and keep up with your study goals.

**Learn Strategies to Master the Exam**

As you learn how to start your GMAT preparation, it may surprise you to discover that memorizing facts and word definitions is not the key to mastering this exam. You have to take the right approach to the GMAT by thinking like the people who created the test. You have to know how to apply the knowledge that you possess.

Our curriculum shows you what you need to do to successfully navigate your way through the questions on the GMAT. Our instructors teach you how to avoid jumping to the seemingly obvious answer and falling into traps set by the creators of the test. We have several instructional options that allow you to choose the most convenient way to start preparing for GMAT questions. We hire instructors who have teaching experience and practical experience with the GMAT. You’ll be learning from professional instructors whose scores on the GMAT put them in the 99th percentile.

If you’ve been wondering how to start preparation for GMAT questions, Veritas Prep can help. Get in touch with our offices today and begin your journey to success on the GMAT!

*Getting ready to take the GMAT? We have **free online GMAT seminars** **running all the time. And, be sure to follow us on **Facebook**, **YouTube**, **Google+**, and **Twitter**!*

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]]>The post Canceling and Rescheduling Your GMAT Exam: What to Know Before You Cancel appeared first on Veritas Prep Blog.

]]>**Common Reasons Why People Need to Cancel Their GMAT Appointments**

Some people have to cancel their appointment to take the GMAT due to family obligations that come up – perhaps they have to attend a funeral or a family member unexpectedly goes into the hospital. Others cancel their test date because they don’t feel prepared to take the GMAT. These are just a few of the numerous reasons why people cancel. No matter the reason, there are steps to take when canceling your appointment that may help you minimize the cancellation fee you have to pay.

**Steps to Take for GMAT Cancellation**

The first step to take in the cancellation process is to go to the official GMAT website. When you signed up to take the GMAT, you opened an account that provides you with a lot of helpful information. You are able to cancel as well as reschedule GMAT appointments through your account.

The cost of taking the GMAT is $250 – if you cancel seven days or more before your scheduled test date and time, you’ll receive a refund of $80. However, if you cancel within seven days of your test day, you don’t receive any refund. Furthermore, if you’re a no-show on test day, you don’t get any type of refund. So if you decide not to take the GMAT, cancel early, if possible, in order to get at least some of your money back.

**How to Reschedule Your Test**

The process of rescheduling the GMAT is a lot like signing up for your original testing appointment. You have to choose the date, time, and location that are best for you. Since you already have an account on the official GMAT website, it takes a little less time to reschedule than it did to make the original appointment.

**Details on the GMAT Reschedule Fee**

Once again, timing plays an important role when you want to reschedule GMAT appointments. If you reschedule more than seven days before the original date for the test, then there is a GMAT reschedule fee of $50. However, if you reschedule within seven days of the original test date and time, there is a $250 fee. Note that you can’t reschedule within 24 hours of the test.

**Ensuring That You’re Ready to Take the Test**

If you cancel your GMAT appointment because you don’t feel prepared, there are things you can do to remedy the situation. At Veritas Prep, we have a GMAT curriculum that reveals what the creators of the test are really looking for. Of course, you must have knowledge of geometry, algebra, reading comprehension, and so forth, but you must also approach the test as if you were a business executive. In short, you have to use your higher-order thinking skills to tackle each section of the GMAT.

In our prep courses, we teach you to think like the test-maker so you will use the right kinds of skills on this challenging exam. Our thorough program of study covers each section and topic on the GMAT, enabling you to walk into the testing location with a sense of confidence on test day.

**Practice With Seasoned GMAT Experts**

As with most tests, it’s a smart idea to complete practice questions so you know what you’ll encounter on test day. Taking a practice GMAT can be daunting to someone who plans to prepare alone for this exam, but our instructors have achieved scores on the GMAT that place them in the 99th percentile. This means we can look at the results of your practice test and provide you with solid guidance on how you can improve in your weakest subjects. Our instructors know firsthand about the subtleties of the GMAT. Working with Veritas Prep means you get an inside scoop on what you need to do to achieve your best score.

We have a few instructional options for you to choose from when it comes to studying for the GMAT. You can learn the strategies you need to know either online or in person. Contact us today and let us play a part in your GMAT success!

*Getting ready to take the GMAT? We have free online GMAT seminars running all the time. And as always, be sure to follow us on Facebook, YouTube, Google+ and Twitter!*

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]]>The post Evaluating “Useful to Evaluate” Critical Reasoning Questions on the GMAT appeared first on Veritas Prep Blog.

]]>To answer this type of question, all you will need to do is follow these six simple steps:

1) Identify the conclusion.

2) Ask yourself the question raised by answer choice A.

3) Answer it with a “yes” and figure out whether it affects the conclusion.

4) Answer it with a “no” and figure out whether it affects the conclusion.

5) Repeat this for all other answer choices.

6) Only one option will affect the conclusion differently in the two cases – that is your answer.

Let’s illustrate this concept with a problem:

*In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movements of many rhinoceroses because those animals wear radio collars. When, as often happens, a collar slips off, it is put back on. Putting a collar on a rhinoceros involves immobilizing the animal by shooting it with a tranquilizer dart. Female rhinoceroses that have been frequently re-collared have significantly lower fertility rates than uncollared females. Probably, therefore, some substance in the tranquilizer inhibits fertility. *

*In evaluating the argument, it would be most useful to determine which of the following? *

*(A) Whether there are more collared female rhinoceroses than uncollared female rhinoceroses in the park. *

*(B) How the tranquilizer that is used for immobilizing rhinoceroses differs, if at all, from tranquilizers used in working with other large mammals *

*(C) How often park rangers need to use tranquilizer darts to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars *

*(D) Whether male rhinoceroses in the wildlife park lose their collars any more often than the park’s female rhinoceroses do *

*(E) Whether radio collars are the only practical means that park rangers have for tracking the movements of rhinoceroses in the park*

First, we need to break down the argument to find the premises and the conclusion:

- Many rhinoceroses wear radio collars.
- Often, collars slip.
- When a collar slips, the animal is shot with a tranquilizer to re-collar.
- The fertility of frequently re-collared females is less than the fertility of uncollared females.
- Conclusion: Some substance in the tranquilizer inhibits fertility.

Let’s take a look at each answer choice:

*(A) Whether there are more collared female rhinoceroses than uncollared female rhinoceroses in the park.*

Even if there are more collared female rhinoceroses than uncollared females, this does not affect the argument’s conclusion. This answer choice talks about collared females vs. uncollared females; we are comparing the fertility of *re-collared* females with that of uncollared females. Anyway, how many of either type there are doesn’t matter. So, whether you answer “yes” or “no” to this question, it is immaterial.

*(B) How the tranquilizer that is used for immobilizing rhinoceroses differs, if at all, from tranquilizers used in working with other large mammals.*

This option is comparing the tranquilizers used for rhinoceroses with the tranquilizers used for other large mammals. What the conclusion does, however, is compare collared female rhinoceroses with uncollared female rhinoceroses. Hence, whether you answer “very different” or “not different at all” to this question, in the end, it doesn’t matter.

*(C) How often park rangers need to use tranquilizer darts to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars.*

This answer choice can be evaluated in two ways:

- Very Often – Tranquilizers are used very often for uncollared females, too. In this case, can we still say that “tranquilizers inhibit fertility”? No! If they did, fertility in uncollared females would have been low, too.
- Rarely – This would strengthen our conclusion. If tranquilizers are not used on uncollared females, it is possible that something in these tranquilizers inhibits fertility.

*(D) Whether male rhinoceroses in the wildlife park lose their collars any more often than the park’s female rhinoceroses do.*

This answer choice is comparing the frequency of tranquilizers used on male rhinoceroses with the frequency of tranquilizers used on female rhinoceroses. What the conclusion actually does is compare collared female rhinoceroses with uncollared female rhinoceroses. Hence, whether you answer this question with “more frequently” or “not more frequently,” it doesn’t matter.

*(E) Whether radio collars are the only practical means that park rangers have for tracking the movements of rhinoceroses in the park.*

This option is comparing radio collars with other means of tracking. What the conclusion does is compare collared female rhinoceroses with uncollared female rhinoceroses. Hence, whether you answer this question with “there are other means” or “there are no other means,” again, it does not matter.

Note that only answer choice C affects the conclusion – if you answer the question it raises differently, it affects the conclusion differently. Option C would be good to know to evaluate the conclusion of the argument, therefore, the answer must be C.

Now try this question on your own:

*Following several years of declining advertising sales, the Greenville Times reorganized its advertising sales force two years ago. Before the reorganization, the sales force was organized geographically, with some sales representatives concentrating on city-center businesses and others concentrating on different outlying regions. The reorganization attempted to increase the sales representatives’ knowledge of clients’ businesses by having each sales representative deal with only one type of industry or of retailing. After the reorganization, advertising sales increased. *

*In assessing whether the improvement in advertising sales can properly be attributed to the reorganization, it would be helpful to find out each of the following EXCEPT:*

*(A) Two years ago, what proportion of the Greenville Times’ total revenue was generated by advertising sales?*

*(B) Has the circulation of the Greenville Times increased substantially in the last two years?*

*(C) Has there been a substantial turnover in personnel in the advertising sales force over the last two years?*

*(D) Before the reorganization, had sales representatives found it difficult to keep up with relevant developments in all types of businesses to which they are assigned?*

*(E) Has the economy in Greenville and the surrounding regions been growing rapidly over the last two years?*

We hope you will find this post useful to evaluate the “useful to evaluate” questions!

*Getting ready to take the GMAT? We have **free online GMAT seminars** **running all the time. And, be sure to follow us on **Facebook**, **YouTube**, **Google+**, and **Twitter**!*

*Karishma**, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the **GMAT** for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as **this blog**!*

The post Evaluating “Useful to Evaluate” Critical Reasoning Questions on the GMAT appeared first on Veritas Prep Blog.

]]>The post GMAT Tip of the Week: Gary Johnson, Aleppo, and What To Do When Your Mind Goes Blank appeared first on Veritas Prep Blog.

]]>In pressure situations, it’s not uncommon for your brain to fail you as you “blank” on a concept you know (or should know). So it’s important to have strategies ready for that moment that very well may come to you. To paraphrase the Morning Joe question to Johnson:

What would you do about “Aleppo?”

Meaning: what would you do if your mind were to go blank on an important GMAT rule or formula?

There are four major strategies that should be in your toolkit for such a situation:

**1) Test Small Numbers**

You should absolutely know formulas like exponent rules or relationships like that between dividend, divisor, and remainder in division, but sometimes your mind just goes blank. In those cases, remember that math rules are logically-derived, not arbitrarily ordained! Math rules will hold for all possible values, so if you’re unsure, test numbers. For example, if you’re forced to solve something like:

*(x^15)(x^9) =*

And you’ve blanked on what to do with exponents, try testing small numbers like (2^2)(2^3). Here, that’s (4)(8) = 32, which is 2^5. So if you’re unsure, “Do I add or multiply the exponents?” you should see from the small example that you definitely don’t multiply, and that your hunch that, “Maybe I add?” works in this case, so you can more confidently make that decision.

Similarly, if a problem asked:

*When integer y is divided by integer z, the quotient is equal to x. Which of the following represents the remainder in terms of x, y, and z?*

*(A) x – yz*

* (B) zy – x*

* (C) y – zx*

* (D) zy – x*

* (E) zx – y*

Many students memorize equations to organize dividend, divisor, quotient, and remainder, but in the fog of war on test day it can even be difficult to remember which element of the division problem is the dividend (it’s the number you start with) and which is the divisor (it’s the one you divide by). So if your mind has blanked on any part of the equation or on which element is which, just test it with small numbers to remind yourself how the concept works:

11 divided by 4 is 2 with a remainder of 3. How do you get to the remainder? You take the 11 you started with and subtract the 8 that you get from taking the divisor of 4 and multiplying it by the quotient of 2. So the answer is y (what you started with) minus zx (the divisor times the quotient), or answer choice C.

Simply put, if you blank on a rule or concept, you can test small numbers to remind yourself how it works.

**2) Use Process of Elimination and Work Backwards From the Answer Choices**

One beautiful thing about the GMAT is that, while in “the real world” if you need to know the Pythagorean Theorem and blank on it, you’re out of luck (well, unless you have a Google-enabled Smartphone in your pocket which you almost certainly do…), on the GMAT you have answer choices as assets. So if your own work stalls in progress, you can look to the answer choices to eliminate options you know for sure you wouldn’t get with that math:

What is x^5 + x^6? You know you don’t add or multiply those exponents, so even if you don’t see to factor out the common x^5, you could eliminate answer choices like x^11 and x^30.

Or you can look to the answer choices to see if they help you determine how you’d apply a rule. For example, if a problem forces you to employ the side ratios for a 45-45-90 triangle and you’ve forgotten them, the presence of some square roots of 2 in the answer choices can help you remember. The square root of 2 is greater than 1, and two sides must match, so if someone spots you “the rule includes a square root of 2” the only thing it can really be is the ratio x : x : x(√2)

Gary Johnson should have been so lucky – had the question been posed as, “What would you do about Aleppo, which is either a DJ on the new Drake album; the epicenter of the Syrian crisis; or a new restaurant in the Garment District?” he would get that question right every single time. Answer choices are your friends…when you blank, consult them!

**3) Think Logically**

Similar to that 45-45-90 “what else could it be?” logic, many times when you blank on a rule, you can work your way to either the rule itself or just to the answer by thinking logically about it. For example, if you end up with math that includes a radical sign in the denominator and can’t quite remember the steps for rationalizing the denominator:

*What is 1/(1 – √2)?*

*(A) √2*

* (B) 1 – √2*

* (C) 1 + √2*

* (D) -1 – √2*

* (E) √2 – 1*

Not all is lost! Sure, algebraically you should multiply the numerator and the denominator by the conjugate (1 + *√*2) but you can also logically work with this one. The numerator is 1, and the denominator is 1 – the square root of 2. You know that *√*2 is between 1 and 2, so what do you know about the denominator? It’s negative, and it’s a fraction (or decimal), so once you’ve taken 1 divided by that, your answer must be a negative number to the left of -1 – only answer choice D would work. So, yeah, you blanked on the steps, but you can still employ logic to back into the answer.

**4) Write Down Everything You Know**

Blanking is particularly troublesome because it’s that moment of panic. You’re trying to retrace your mental steps and the answer is elusive; it’s a moment you’re not in control of at that point. So take control! The more you’re actively working – jotting down other related formulas or facts you know, working on other facets of the diagram or problem and saving that step for last, etc. – the more you’re controlling, or at least actively managing, the situation.

Gary Johnson couldn’t get away with a “Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?” style talk-through-it (“Um, I know it’s not the name of any congressmen; it’s not Zika, it’s not…”) without looking dumb, but no one is going to audit your scratchwork and release it to *Huffington Post*, so you’re free to jot down half-baked thoughts and trial calculations to your heart’s content. Actively manage the situation, and you can work your way through that dreaded “my mind is blank” moment.

So learn from Gary Johnson. No matter how much you’ve prepared for your GMAT, there’s a chance that your mind will go blank on something you know that you know, but just can’t recall in the moment. But you have options, so heed the wisdom above, and let Trump or Clinton handle the gaffes for the day while you move on confidently to the next question.

*Getting ready to take the GMAT? We have free online GMAT seminars running all the time. And as always, be sure to follow us on Facebook, YouTube, Google+ and Twitter!*

*By Brian Galvin.*

The post GMAT Tip of the Week: Gary Johnson, Aleppo, and What To Do When Your Mind Goes Blank appeared first on Veritas Prep Blog.

]]>The post How to Simplify Complicated Combination and Permutation Questions on the GMAT appeared first on Veritas Prep Blog.

]]>If, for example, there are 10 people in a class, and you wish to find the number of ways you can form a cabinet consisting of a president, a vice president, and a treasurer, all you need to do is recognize that if you have 10 options for the president, you’ll have 9 left for the vice president, and 8 remaining for the treasurer, and the answer is 10*9*8. Easy, right?

But on the GMAT, as in life, anything that seems too good to be true probably is. An easy question can be tackled with the type of mechanical thinking illustrated above. A harder question will require a more sophisticated approach in which we consider disparate scenarios and perform calculations for each.

Take this question, for example:

*Of the three-digit positive integers whose three digits are all different and nonzero, how many are odd integers greater than 700?*

*A) 84*

*B) 91*

*C) 100*

*D) 105*

*E) 243*

It’s natural to see this problem and think, “All I have to do is reason out how many options I have for each digit. So for the hundreds digit, I have 3 options (7, 8, or 9); the tens digit has to be different from the hundreds digit, and it must be non-zero, so I’ll have 8 options here; then the last digit has to be odd, so…”

Here’s where the trouble starts. The number of eligible numbers in the 700’s will not be the same as the number of eligible numbers in the 800’s -if the digits must all be different, then a number in the 700’s can’t end in 7, but a number in the 800’s could. So, we need to break this problem into separate cases:

**First Case: Numbers in the 700’s **

If we’re dealing with numbers in the 700’s, then we’re calculating how many ways we can select a tens digit and a units digit. 7___ ___.

Let’s start with the units digit. Well, we know that this number needs to be odd. And we know that it must be different from the hundreds and the tens digits. This leaves us the following options, as we’ve already used 7 for the hundreds digit: 1, 3, 5, 9. So there are 4 options remaining for the units digit.

Now the tens digit must be a non-zero number that’s different from the hundreds and units digit. There are 9 non-zero digits. We’re using one of those for the hundreds place and one of those for the units place, leaving us 7 options remaining for the tens digit. If there are 4 ways we can select the units digit and 7 ways we can select the tens digit, there are 4*7 = 28 options in the 700’s.

**Second Case: Numbers in the 800’s**

Same logic: 8 ___ ___. Again, this number must be odd, but now we have 5 options for the units digit, as every odd number will obviously be different from the hundreds digit, which is even (1, 3, 5, 7, or 9). The tens digit logic is the same – 9 non-zero digits total, but it must be different from the hundreds and the units digit, leaving us 7 options remaining. If there are 5 ways we can select the units digit and 7 ways we can select the tens digit, there are 5*7 = 35 options in the 800’s.

**Third Case: Numbers in the 900’s**

This calculation will be identical to the 700’s scenario: 9___ ___. For the units digit, we want an odd number that is different from the hundreds digit, giving us (1, 3, 5, 7), or 4 options. We’ll have 7 options again for the tens digit, for the same reasons that we’ll have 7 options for the tens digit in our other cases. If there are 4 ways we can select the units digit and 7 ways we can select the tens digit, then there are 4*7 = 28 options in the 900’s.

To summarize, there are 28 options in the 700’s, 35 options in the 800’s, and 28 options in the 900’s. 28 + 35 + 28 = 91. Therefore, B is the correct answer.

Takeaway: for a simpler permutation question, it’s fine to simply set up your slots and multiply. For a more complicated problem, we’ll need to work case-by-case, bearing in mind that each individual case is, on its own, actually not nearly as hard as it looks, sort of like the GMAT itself.

*Plan on taking the GMAT soon? We have GMAT prep courses starting all the time. And be sure to follow us on Facebook, YouTube, Google+ and Twitter!*

*By David Goldstein, a Veritas Prep GMAT instructor based in Boston. You can find more articles written by him here.*

The post How to Simplify Complicated Combination and Permutation Questions on the GMAT appeared first on Veritas Prep Blog.

]]>The post Understanding the GMAT Integrated Reasoning Scoring appeared first on Veritas Prep Blog.

]]>Consider some information that can improve your understanding of the scoring process for the Integrated Reasoning section:

**Profile of the Integrated Reasoning Section on the GMAT**

Before learning about GMAT Integrated Reasoning scoring, it’s a good idea to know a little about the questions you’ll encounter in this section. These questions ask you to examine various charts, diagrams, and tables. You then need to evaluate, organize, and synthesize the data to answer questions. It’s important to filter the essential data from the non-essential data.

There are 12 questions in this section, and each one has several parts. The four types of questions featured in the Integrated Reasoning section are Two-Part Analysis, Multi-Source Reasoning, Graphics Interpretation, and Table Analysis. In this section, the order and difficulty of the questions is random.

One of the best ways to prep for the Integrated Reasoning section as well as all of the others on the GMAT is to take a practice exam. At Veritas Prep, you can see how your skills stack up in each section by taking our free GMAT practice test. We also provide you with a score report and performance analysis to make your study time all the more efficient!

**Scoring on the Integrated Reasoning Section**

When it comes to the GMAT section on Integrated Reasoning, scoring comes in the form of single-digits – the scores for this section range from one to eight. You receive a raw score that is given a percentile ranking. The score you receive for the Integrated Reasoning section doesn’t affect your total score for other sections on the GMAT. (Note that you won’t be able to see your Integrated Reasoning score on the unofficial score report that is shown to test-takers immediately after the GMAT is complete.) You will find out your Integrated Reasoning score in 20 days or so, when your official score report is delivered to you.

**Considerations for Integrated Reasoning Questions**

There are some pieces of information that can prove helpful to you as you tackle the Integrated Reasoning section on the GMAT. For instance, you can’t earn partial credit for these questions. That’s why it’s important to pay close attention to all parts of each question. Furthermore, you can’t answer just part of a question and click forward to the next question. And after answering an Integrated Reasoning question, you won’t be able to go back and rethink an answer. These are things to keep in mind to avoid making preventable errors in this section.

**Preparing for the Integrated Reasoning Section**

For the section on Integrated Reasoning, scoring is a little different than it is on the rest of the test, but it’s just as important to excel here as on the other sections. The effective curriculum of our GMAT prep courses can supply you with the mental resources you need to master the Integrated Reasoning section along with every other section on the exam.

Veritas Prep instructors are ideally suited to prepare you for the GMAT, since each of them earned a score on the GMAT that put them in the 99th percentile. Our professional tutors understand that you have to think like the Testmaker in order to master every part of the exam. In addition to being knowledgeable and experienced, our instructors are experts at offering lots of encouragement to their students.

On top of providing you with first-rate prep for the GMAT, we also offer you options when it comes to how you study. We have both online and in-person classes designed to suit your busy schedule – we know that many people who take the GMAT also have full-time careers. Be sure to take advantage of Veritas Prep’s other valuable services, such as our live homework help, available seven days a week. This means you never have to wait to get your questions answered! Contact our offices today to get started on your GMAT studies.

*Getting ready to take the GMAT? We have **free online GMAT seminars** **running all the time. And, be sure to follow us on **Facebook**, **YouTube**, **Google+**, and **Twitter**!*

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]]>The post Quarter Wit, Quarter Wisdom: Using the Deviation Method for Weighted Averages appeared first on Veritas Prep Blog.

]]>The same method can be applied to weighted averages, as well. Let’s look at an example very similar to the one we examined when we were working on deviations in the case of arithmetic means:

*What is the average of 452, 452, 453, 460, 467, 480, 499, 499, 504?*

What would you say the average is here? Perhaps, around 470?

**Shortfall:**

We have two 452s – 452 is 18 less than 470.

453 is 17 less than 470.

460 is 10 less than 470.

467 is 3 less than 470.

Overall, the numbers less than 470 are (2*18) + 17 + 10 + 3 = 66 less than 470.

**Excess:**

480 is 10 more than 470.

We have two 499s – 499 is 29 more than 470.

504 is 34 more than 470.

Overall, the numbers more than 470 are 10 + (2*29) + 34 = 102 more than 470.

The shortfall is not balanced by the excess; there is an excess of 102-66 = 36.

So what is the average? If we assume that the average of these 9 numbers is 470, there will be an excess of 36. We need to distribute this excess evenly among all of the numbers, and hence, the average will increase by 36/9 = 4.

Therefore, the required mean is 470 + 4 = 474. (If we had assumed the mean to be 474, the shortfall would have balanced the excess.)

This method is used in exactly the same way when we have a simple average as when we have a weighted average. The reason we are reviewing it is that it can be very handy in weighted average questions involving more than two quantities.

We often deal with questions on weighted averages involving two quantities using the scale method. Let’s see how to use the deviation method for more than 2 quantities on an official GMAT question:

*Three grades of milk are 1 percent, 2 percent and 3 percent fat by volume. If x gallons of the 1 percent grade, y gallons of the 2 percent grade, and z gallons of the 3 percent grade are mixed to give x+y+z gallons of a 1.5 percent grade, what is x in terms of y and z?*

*(A) y + 3z*

*(B) (y +z) / 4*

*(C) 2y + 3z*

*(D) 3y + z*

*(E) 3y + 4.5z*

Grade 1 milk contains 1% fat. Grade 2 milk contains 2% fat. Grade 3 milk contains 3% fat. The mixture of all three contains 1.5% fat. So, grade 1 milk provides the shortfall and grades 2 and 3 milk provide the excess.

Shortfall = x*(1.5 – 1)

Excess = y*(2 – 1.5) + z*(3 – 1.5)

Since 1.5 is the actual average, the shortfall = the excess.

x*(1.5 – 1) = y*(2 – 1.5) + z*(3 – 1.5)

x/2 = y/2 + 3z/2

x = y + 3z

And there you have it – the answer is A.

We easily used deviations here to arrive at the relation. It’s good to have this method – useful for both simple averages and weighted averages – in your GMAT toolkit.

*Getting ready to take the GMAT? We have **free online GMAT seminars** **running all the time. And, be sure to follow us on **Facebook**, **YouTube**, **Google+**, and **Twitter**!*

*Karishma**, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the **GMAT** for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as **this blog**!*

The post Quarter Wit, Quarter Wisdom: Using the Deviation Method for Weighted Averages appeared first on Veritas Prep Blog.

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]]>What does that mean?

On a timed test like the GMAT, one of the biggest drains on your score can be a combination of undue time and undue energy spent on problems that could be done much simpler. “The long way is the wrong way” as a famous GMAT instructor puts it – those seconds you waste, those extra steps that could lead to error or distraction, they’ll add up over the test and pull your score much lower than you’d like it to be. With that in mind, here are six ways to help you avoid too much labor on test day:

QUANTITATIVE SECTION

**1) Do the math in your order, only when necessary.**

Because the GMAT doesn’t allow a calculator, it heavily rewards candidates who can find efficient ways to avoid the kind of math for which you’d need a calculator. Very frequently this means that the GMAT will tempt you with calculations that you’d ordinarily just plug-and-chug with a calculator, but that can be horribly time-consuming once you start.

For example, a question might require you to take an initial number like 15, then multiply by 51, then divide by 17. On a calculator or in Excel, you’d do exactly that. But on the GMAT, that calculation gets messy. 15*51 = 765 – a calculation that isn’t awful but that will take most people a few steps and maybe 20 seconds. But then you have to do some long division with 17 going into 765. Or do you? If you’re comfortable using factors, multiples, and reducing fractions, you can see those two steps (multiply by 51, divide by 17) as one: multiply by 51/17, and since 51/17 reduces to 3, then you’re really just doing the calculation 15*3, which is easily 45.

The lesson? For one, don’t start doing ugly math until you absolutely know you have to perform that step. Save ugly math for later, because the GMAT is notorious for “rescuing” those who are patient enough to wait for future steps that will simplify the process. And, secondly, get really, really comfortable with factors and divisibility. Quickly recognizing how to break a number into its factors (51 = 3*17; 65 = 5*13; etc.) allows you to streamline calculations and do much of the GMAT math in your head. Getting to that level of comfort may take some labor, but it will save you plenty of workload on test day.

**2) Recognize that “Answers Are Assets.”**

Another way to avoid or shortcut messy math is to look at the answer choices first. Some problems might look like they involve messy algebra, but can be made much easier by plugging in answer choices and doing the simpler arithmetic. Other times, the answer choices will lead themselves to process of elimination, whether because some choices do not have the proper units digit, or are clearly too small.

Still others will provide you with clues as to how you have to attack the math. For example, if the answer choices are something like: A) 0.0024; B) 0.0246; C) 0.246; D) 2.46; E) 24.6, they’re not really testing you on your ability to arrive at the digits 246, but rather on where the decimal point should go (how many times should that number be multiplied/divided by 10). You can then set your sights on the number of decimal places while not stressing other details of the calculation.

Whatever you do, always scan the answer choices first to see if there are easier ways to do the problem than to simply slog through the math. The answers are assets – they’re there for a reason, and often, they’ll provide you with clues that will help you save valuable time.

**3) Question the Question – Know where the game is being played.**

Very often, particularly in Data Sufficiency, the GMAT Testmaker will subtly provide a clue as to what’s really being tested. And those who recognize that can very quickly focus on what matters and not get lost in other elements of the problem.

For example, if the question stem includes an inequality with zero (x > 0 or xy < 0), there’s a very high likelihood that you’re being tested on positive/negative number properties. So, when a statement then says something like “1) x^3 = 1331”, you can hold off on trying to take the cube root of 1331 and simply say, “Odd exponent = positive value, so I know that x is positive,” and see if that helps you answer the question without much calculation. Or if the problem asks for the value of 6x – y, you can say to yourself, “I may not be able to solve for x and y individually, but if not, let’s try to isolate exactly that 6x – y term,” and set up your algebra accordingly so that you’re efficiently working toward that specific goal.

Good test-takers tend to see “where the game is being played” by recognizing what the Testmaker is testing. When you can see that a question is about number properties (and not exact values) or a combination of values (and not the individual values themselves) or a comparison of values (again, not the actual values themselves), you can structure your work to directly attack the question and not fall victim to a slog of unnecessary calculations.

VERBAL SECTION

**4) Focus on keywords in Critical Reasoning conclusions.**

The Verbal section simply *looks* time-consuming because there’s so much to read, so it pays to know where to spend your time and focus. The single most efficient place to spend time (and the most disastrous if you don’t) is in the conclusion of a Strengthen or Weaken question. To your advantage, noticing a crucial detail in a conclusion can tell you exactly “where the game is being played” (Oh, it’s not how much iron, it’s iron PER CALORIE; it’s not that Company X needs to reduce costs overall, it’s that it needs to reduce SHIPPING costs; etc.) and help you quickly search for the answer choices that deal with that particular gap in logic.

On the downside, if you don’t spend time emphasizing the conclusion, you’re in trouble – burying a conclusion-limiting word or phrase (like “per calorie” or “shipping”) in a long paragraph can be like hiding a needle in a haystack. The Testmaker knows that the untrained are likely to miss these details, and have created trap answers (and just the opportunity to waste time re-reading things that don’t really matter) for those who fall in that group.

**5) Scan the Sentence Correction answer choices before you dive into the sentence.**

Much like “Answers are Assets” above, a huge help on Sentence Correction problems is to scan the answer choices quickly to see if you can determine where the game is being played (Are they testing pronouns? Verb tenses?). Simply reading a sentence about a strange topic (old excavation sites, a kind of tree that only grows on the leeward slopes of certain mountains…) and looking for anything that strikes you as odd or ungrammatical, that takes time and saps your focus and energy.

However, the GMAT primarily tests a handful of concepts over and over, so if you recognize what is being tested, you can read proactively and look for the words/phrases that directly control that decision you’re being asked to make. Do different answers have different verb tenses? Look for words that signal time (before, since, etc.). Do they involve different pronouns? Read to identify the noun in question and determine which pronoun it needs. You’re not really being tasked with “editing the sentence” as much as your job is to make the proper decision with the choices they’ve already given you. They’ve already narrowed the scope of items you can edit, so identify that scope before you take out the red marking pen across the whole sentence.

**6) STOP and avoid rereading.**

As the Veritas Prep Reading Comprehension lesson teaches, stop at the end of each paragraph of a reading passage to ask yourself whether you understand Scope, Tone, Organization, and Purpose. The top two time-killers on Reading Comprehension passages/problems are re-reading (you get to the end and realize you don’t really know what you just read) and over-reading (you took several minutes absorbing a lot of details, but now the clock is ticking louder and you haven’t looked at the questions yet).

STOP will help you avoid re-reading (if you weren’t locked in on the first paragraph, you can reread that in 30 seconds and not wait to the end to realize you need to reread the whole thing) and will give you a quick checklist of, “Do I understand just enough to move on?” Details are only important if you’re asked about them, so focus on the major themes (Do you know what the paragraph was about – a quick 5-7 word synopsis is perfect – and why it was written? Good.) and save the details for later.

It may seem ironic that the GMAT is set up to punish hard-workers, but in business, efficiency is everything – the test needs to reward those who work smarter and not just harder, so an effective test day simply cannot be a Labor Day. Use this Labor Day weekend to study effectively so that test day is one on which you prioritize efficiency, not labor.

*Getting ready to take the GMAT? We have free online GMAT seminars running all the time. And as always, be sure to follow us on Facebook, YouTube, Google+ and Twitter!*

*By Brian Galvin.*

The post GMAT Tip of the Week: 6 Reasons That Your Test Day Won’t Be A Labor Day appeared first on Veritas Prep Blog.

]]>The post GMAT Geometry Practice Questions and Problems appeared first on Veritas Prep Blog.

]]>**Learn and Practice the Basic Geometry Formulas**

Knowing some basic formulas in geometry is an essential step to mastering these questions on the GMAT. One formula you should know is the Pythagorean Theorem, which is a^2 + b^2 = c^2, where c stands for the longest side of a right triangle, while a and b represent the other two sides.

Another formula to remember is the area of a triangle, which is A = 1/2bh, where A is the area, b is the length of the base, and h is the height. The formula for finding the area of a rectangle is l*w = A (length times width equals the area). Once you learn these and other basic geometry formulas for the GMAT, the next step is to put them into practice so you know how to use them when they’re called for on the exam.

**Complete Practice Quizzes and Questions**

Reviewing problems and their answers and completing GMAT geometry practice questions are two ways to sharpen your skills for this section of the test. This sort of practice also helps you become accustomed to the timing when it comes to GMAT geometry questions. These questions are found within the Quantitative section of the GMAT.

You are given just 75 minutes to finish 37 questions in this section. Of course, not all 37 questions involve geometry – GMAT questions in the Quantitative section also include algebra, arithmetic, and word problems – but working on completing each geometry problem as quickly as possible will help you finish the section within the time limit. In fact, you should work on establishing a rhythm for each section of the GMAT so you don’t have to worry about watching the time.

**Use Simple Study Tools to Review Problems**

Another way to prepare for GMAT geometry questions is to use study tools such as flashcards to strengthen your skills. Some flashcards are virtual and can be accessed as easily as taking your smartphone out of your pocket. If you prefer traditional paper flashcards, they can also be carried around easily so you can review them during any free moments throughout the day. Not surprisingly, a tremendous amount of review can be accomplished at odd moments during a single day.

In addition, playing geometry games online can help you hone your skills and add some fun to the process at the same time. You could try to beat your previous score on an online geometry game or even compete against others who have played the same game. Challenging another person to a geometry game can sometimes make your performance even better.

**Study With a Capable Tutor**

Preparing with a tutor can help you to master geometry for GMAT questions. A tutor can offer you encouragement and guide you in your studies. All of our instructors at Veritas Prep have taken the GMAT and earned scores that have put them in the 99th percentile of test-takers. When you study with one of our tutors, you are learning from an experienced instructor as well as someone who has been where you are in the GMAT preparation process.

Our prep courses instruct you on how to approach geometry questions along with every other topic on the GMAT. We know that memorizing facts is not enough: You must apply higher-order thinking to every question, including those that involve geometry. GMAT creators have designed the questions to test some of the skills you will need in the business world.

Taking a practice GMAT gives you an idea of what skills you’ve mastered and which you need to improve. Our staff invites you to take a practice GMAT for free. We’ll give you a score report and a performance analysis so you have a clear picture of what you need to focus on. Then, whether you want help with geometry or another subject on the GMAT, our team of professional instructors is here for you.

*Plan on taking the GMAT soon? We have GMAT prep courses starting all the time. And be sure to follow us on Facebook, YouTube, Google+ and Twitter!*

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]]>The post How to Solve “Hidden” Factor Problems on the GMAT appeared first on Veritas Prep Blog.

]]>But if tell you that I have a certain number of cupcakes and, were I so inclined, I could distribute the same number of cupcakes to each of 6 students with none left over or to each of 9 students with none left over, it’s the same concept, but I’m not telegraphing the subject in the same conspicuous manner as the previous question.

This kind of recognition comes in handy for questions like this one:

*All boxes in a certain warehouse were arranged in stacks of 12 boxes each, with no boxes left over. After 60 additional boxes arrived and no boxes were removed, all the boxes in the warehouse were arranged in stacks of 14 boxes each, with no boxes left over. How many boxes were in the warehouse before the 60 additional boxes arrived?*

(1) There were fewer than 110 boxes in the warehouse __before __the 60 additional arrived.

(2) There were fewer than 120 boxes in the warehouse __after__ the 60 additional arrived.

Initially, we have stacks of 12 boxes with no boxes left over, meaning we could have 12 boxes or 24 boxes or 36 boxes, etc. This is when you want to recognize that we’re dealing with a multiple/factor question. That first sentence tells you that the number of boxes is a multiple of 12. After 60 more boxes were added, the boxes were arranged in stacks of 14 with none left over – after this change, the number of boxes is a multiple of 14.

Because 60 is, itself, a multiple of 12, the new number must remain a multiple of 12, as well. [If we called the old number of boxes 12x, the new number would be 12x + 60. We could then factor out a 12 and call this number 12(x + 5.) This number is clearly a multiple of 12.] Therefore the new number, after 60 boxes are added, is a multiple of both 12 and 14. Now we can find the least common multiple of 12 and 14 to ensure that we don’t miss any possibilities.

The prime factorization of 12: 2^2 * 3

The prime factorization of 14: 2 * 7

The least common multiple of 12 and 14: 2^2 * 3 * 7 = 84.

We now know that, after 60 boxes were added, the total number of boxes was a multiple of 84. There could have been 84 boxes or 168 boxes, etc. And before the 60 boxes were added, there could have been 84-60 = 24 boxes or 168-60 = 108 boxes, etc.

A brief summary:

After 60 boxes were added: 84, 168, 252….

Before 60 boxes were added: 24, 108, 192….

That feels like a lot of work to do before even glancing at the statements, but now look at how much easier they are to evaluate!

Statement 1 tells us that there were fewer than 110 boxes before the 60 boxes were added, meaning there could have been 24 boxes to start (and 84 once 60 were added), or there could have been 108 boxes to start (and 168 once 60 were added). Because there are multiple potential solutions here, Statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the question.

Statement 2 tells us that there were fewer than 120 boxes after 60 boxes were added. This means there could have been 84 boxes – that’s the only possibility, as the next number, 168, already exceeds 120. So we know for a fact that there are 84 boxes after 60 were added, and 24 boxes before they were added. Statement 2 alone is sufficient, and the answer is B.

Takeaway: questions that look strange or funky are always testing concepts that have been tested in the past – otherwise, the exam wouldn’t be standardized. By making these connections, and recognizing that a verbal clue such as “none left over” really means that we’re talking about multiples and factors, we can recognize even the most abstract patterns on the toughest of GMAT questions.

*Plan on taking the GMAT soon? We have GMAT prep courses starting all the time. And be sure to follow us on Facebook, YouTube, Google+ and Twitter!*

*By David Goldstein, a Veritas Prep GMAT instructor based in Boston. You can find more articles written by him here.*

The post How to Solve “Hidden” Factor Problems on the GMAT appeared first on Veritas Prep Blog.

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